Why should eye care?

As we approach the summer, now might be a good time for a timely reminder about taking care of yourself.

One of the most neglected parts of ourselves is our eyes. Don’t believe me? Think of how much you require of them each day. You may be the kind of person that thumbs through your phone in a dark room. You subject them to the demands of reading from a small reflective screen many times a day. In the sunlight they have to squint. When you read books, they have to strain to maintain focus for a long time.

It has been demonstrated that the development of bad habits tends to arise from prolonged exposure to education. People who have spent long periods in education tend to neglect their eyes in their quest for knowledge. Unfortunately, being accustomed to bad habits for prolonged periods means that after a while the bad habits become natural and we don’t realise we are doing the wrong thing.

Here’s how you can take care of your eyes:

Remember that when you are out and about, try to protect your eyes from the glare of the sun by wearing sunglasses so that you are never looking at the sun or shiny surfaces,

If you are reading, ensure that your shadow does not fall onto the reading material. This applies whether you are reading indoors or reading outdoors. When your shadow falls onto the book, it means your eyes have to strain to pick up words from the page.

Every now and then, look up to refocus your eyes. Some suggest the 20-20-20 rule. Every twenty minutes, look up from your work far into the distance at an object 20 feet away (metres if you prefer) for 20 seconds. This breaks the demand on your eyes.

Be conscious of how often you are using your phone and squinting to read from a reflective bright surface.

It may take time to get used to developing new reading habits, but just as playing the piano successfully involves being comfortable with knowing where the notes are through familiarity, these habits will become second nature if you keep practising them.

Your eyes are the only ones you have to last a lifetime. Look after them properly! And if you are out and about along the beach, don’t forget your sunglasses!

The hidden sense

As summer approaches, the party atmosphere in Brighton comes to life. Summer days mean warmer weather, and longer periods to enjoy life and all it brings. For some this means parties on the beach that extend well into the night hours and continues in the discos. We listen to music endlessly on our phones, then take in some more and more. After all, music is free, right?

While we enjoy the summer days, there must be things we need to be aware of. For example, listening to loud music for an intense period can affect our hearing. Even listening to averagely loud music but for a longer duration can have an impact on it.

Think of the ear as a muscle like your arm – if you force it to lift heavy loads, it is an intense burst within a short period of time. But if you make it lift light loads, but repetitively, you get that dull ache that comes from endurance work.

The music itself need not necessarily noisy, or associated with a loud genre; even Classical music dating from the Baroque or Classical, but played loudly, can affect your hearing. (Although it is admittedly not that trendy to be bopping along to classical composers like Handel – maybe crossover music would be better?)

So as the summer approaches, maybe a lifestyle choice would be to be mindful of the noise your ears are exposed to.

If you want to go out partying and enjoying all the things that young people do, then by all means do so, but do look after your hearing. Otherwise when you are older, you will be bopping to silent disco music! And that is not necessarily the version with wireless headphones on, it is the one where there is no sound around you.

Brighton captain re-signs; Seagulls draw

Brighton captain Bruno has signed a new one-year contract with the Premier League club until June 2019.

The 37-year-old right-back, who joined the Seagulls from Valencia in 2012, has made 21 league appearances this season.

“Bruno has been exemplary in my time as manager,” said Brighton boss Chris Hughton.

“Firstly, he has been an excellent right-back for the team, and secondly an excellent captain for the club over the past three seasons.”

The manager added: “The way he looks after himself on and off the pitch is an example to any player, and it is due to that lifestyle of professionalism that he is still playing at such a high level at this stage of his career.”

Brighton played Huddersfield last Saturday and were held to a 1-1 draw.

Huddersfield claimed a potentially crucial point in their battle against relegation as they drew with 10-man Brighton at the Amex Stadium in a game that saw both sides end their recent goal droughts.

The Seagulls and the Terriers are hoping to secure another season of top-flight football after they were promoted from the Championship last year and three points in this game would have gone a long way to making that a reality.

Brighton took the lead when the ball rebounded off Huddersfield goalkeeper Jonas Lossl’s head after he had pushed Solly March’s shot onto the post.

Huddersfield responded almost immediately as Steve Mounie pounced on Shane Duffy’s terrible back pass to slot in.

The visitors’ hopes of snatching victory were then boosted when Brighton midfielder Davy Propper was sent off for a late challenge on Jonathan Hogg.

However, it was the hosts who could have taken the three points at the end when Jose Izquierdo was put through on goal – but the forward was superbly denied by Lossl.

The draw means Brighton are 13th, seven points above the relegation zone, while Huddersfield are 16th and four points above 18th-placed Southampton.

Neither of these sides have been the Premier League entertainers in recent weeks.

Brighton had gone a month without scoring while Huddersfield were approaching seven hours since their last goal.

It was, therefore, perhaps not surprising that their respective droughts were ended in somewhat fortuitous fashion.

Lossl can perhaps count himself unfortunate for Brighton’s opener as he pushed March’s shot onto the post and the ball rebounded back off his head and into the net.

Huddersfield had come back only once before this season to get a result after falling behind but they were on level terms just two minutes later.

Duffy inexplicably played the ball straight to Mounie and the Terriers’ top scorer kept his composure to round the keeper and slot in his ninth goal of the season.

Brighton are probably one win away from making sure of their Premier League status for another season and with tough games against Tottenham, Manchester United, Manchester City and Liverpool to come, this was arguably their most winnable fixture.

However, it would still take a big turnaround in form from the bottom three to see the Seagulls slip into trouble.

Any away point is an important one in the Premier League but this was the second time in their last four games Huddersfield had failed to take advantage of their opponents going down to 10 men by snatching victory.

But the Terriers have given themselves that extra bit of breathing space and this was a considerably improved performance after disappointing displays in defeats by Crystal Palace and Newcastle.

David Wagner’s side attacked with pace, created chances and finished with more shots on target – five – than they had in their previous two games combined, when they managed just two. That should give them hope ahead of upcoming home games against Watford and Everton.

Nearly there now …

This Saturday the Brighton and Hove Albion football team take on Leicester City at 3:00pm in a match, that for Albion, could go on towards solidifying their Premier League status.

The Seagulls are currently six points above Southampton, Leicester manager’s Claude Puel former team, who sacked him despite finishing respectably last season. The six point cushion equates to two games over a eight game period, which means that all the Seagulls have to do is match Southampton’s, or Stoke City’s record over the next six games to be able to safely celebrate.

Unfortunately at this stage it appears West Brom’s place in the lower divisions next year is already booked. With seven games left for them to play, the bottom-placed club need to win four of their next games and hope West Ham or Crystal Palace lose their next four, to even have a chance of sniffing survival. But bearing in mind what has happened to the club, with wages not being paid, club leaders behaving like idiots on a recent trip to Barcelona, the morale has already been drained from the club. Alan Pardew’s reputation as a saver may go down the drain.

Brighton are currently twelfth at the international break but there is good incentive to go for a good top ten result which would represent the south coast’s club’s best ever finish in the Premier League. It would be a long way away from the Southern League for the club started in 1901, and a further cry away from the team that nearly got relegated from the Championship in 2014-15 when they finished 20th.

Has it been a good January transfer window for Leonardo Ulloa? The Argentinian was the club’s best player in 2013-14, scoring sixteen goals en route to being the top scorer for the club, but then after winning the Premier League with Leicester City he was frozen out and unhappy. His return to the club continues to bode well.

Albion are slated for another season in the Premier League, but let’s not count our chickens for a few more weeks. And let’s hope they triumph this weekend, so we can all have a Happy Easter!

Manchester United in Albion sights

Can Brighton pull one off just like Sevilla? The Spanish conquerors arrived at Old Trafford last night and despite the uneviable record of never having won on English soil before, did just that, and of all places in the realm of Old Trafford, past European conquerors themselves. Remember Sheringham and Solsjkaer and company? The footage of them scoring injury time goals to win must surely have been repeated many times over, but now the ability to score late must be a distant memory of the past. Despite having Romelo Lukaku in the squad, Alexis Sanchez, and Paul Pogba, a total of nearly two hundred million invested in them, the Mancunians found it hard to break down the Spanish team of arguably less famous personnel. Well, perhaps until now.

So ahead of Brighton’s match at Old Trafford in the semi-finals of the FA Cup, the Seagulls must be fancying their chances. The Seagulls have won their last few games, including strong opposition like Arsenal. They have fought off their relegation worries and are can play confidently without the fear of not being in the Premier League next season. More importantly, they have gone to big places like the Emirates and won, and played credibly in games that perhaps they were unlucky to lose. So despite the fact that Sunday’s game is away, they must be thinking they could pull one off.

The Manchester squad appears to be infighting at the moment. Alexis Sanchez’s arrival at Old Trafford has seemingly soured relations with his team mates, with Paul Pogba questioning his own lack of influence on his team’s game. Pogba’s assists and minutes have gone down since the arrival of the Chilean, and Jose Mourinho appears to be finding problems to include both in his team. He must find a way to integrate both into the squad, or it would seem like he has traded Mkhitaryan and Pogba for Sanchez. And has the curse of Alexis Sanchez hit Mancunian shores? He seemed to sour relations between his team mates when he was at Arsenal, maybe the same is happening with Manchester United.

United’s problems, Brighton’s advantage. The Seagulls are on a winning run, and United, fresh off a win at Liverpool before being bundled out by Sevilla last night, must regroup fast (but hopefully not too fast). If Albion progress, they will most likely face Tottenham who are favourites against Swansea. But let’s take it one step at a time first.

Seagulls into the next round

Are things on the up for the Brighton football club? The Seagulls scored a 3-1 win over Coventry in the FA Cup to progress to the quarter finals. The progress to that stage is the club’s first since the 1980s – 1986, to be exact.

And what a dream debut for Jurgen Locadia. The record signing from PSV Eindhoven joined in January and made a dream appearance, scoring just inside a quarter of an hour to edge his club in front. Brighton’s dominance was never really much in doubt with Connor Goldson scoring with a header twenty minutes later to put the Seagulls further in front. And went old boy Leonardo Ulloa, on loan from Leicester scored in the 61st minute, the fans by this time realised they were on the verge of a quarter-final trip. The consolation goal by Coventry did not dent the joy at reaching the last eight, although it must have been a bit of a downer for Netherlands and former Newcastle stopper Tim Krul not to have kept a clean sheet.

Locadia had several chances to add to his debut and had he been able to convert them he would have had an even greater debut with a hat-trick. But the forward is only just recovering from a hamstring injury which delayed his debut, and his combination with Solly March and Anthony Knockaert is promising for Albion.

Brighton boss Chris Hughton was delighted with the performance and felt the team carried themselves well even though Coventry were in the lower leagues. He had reason to be pleased with the performance of March, who looked like a threat whenever he received the ball. March was voted man of the match and his performance and tireless running created chances for his teammates.

The result is a good one for the Seagulls before they meet relegation-threatened Swansea on Saturday, followed by Arsenal the week after. If they build on the positive performance and a run of good results, they might view the weeks leading to the close of the season more positively.

Learning about learning

How do you feel when you have to learn something new? Do you feel a sense of excitement, or do you encounter an initial sense of negativity that stays with you for a long time?

For many people, especially those of the younger generation, learning a new skill comes with a sense of aspiration and idealism. They see the skill and what it can offer to their lives, not just in terms of the skill and direct benefits itself, but also for the fame and recognition. For example, someone wishing to take up singing has ideas of being able to make it big as a singer-songwriter, and being the object of attention of millions in a big arena.

The unfortunate thing with learning a skill – if you can call it unfortunate at all – is that it takes time to do well. Skills take time to be familiar with, to acquire, and to refine, so that every action benefits. A lot of people go for the product and not the process, because they want to end-gain, to get to the final product immediately, because they are hungry for the success. This means they short-cut their way to the end, without any idea of how they’ve achieved it.

You see this in young children. When they are asked to do a piece of writing, for example, and are not willing to do it, they fill a piece of paper with words – perhaps written not very nicely, as a form of protest – and will insist they have completed it, when the paper is full of words, without any form of whether what they have written is of substance and neat. They have gone for the product, in order to complete it, rather than think of the process.

Perhaps it is a good idea to learn little craft skills to subconsciously learn the life skills of patience and practice. Rather than discover – when the stakes are too high – that one has chosen to do something ambitious without having the will or aptitude for it, it may be prudent to do little artistic skills, slightly less ambitious tasks in order to develop the patience and willingness to graft, and develop a mental framework of what it takes to learn a skill. If you’re ever on the Brighton seafront, you will find a myriad of ideas just looking at the craft shops around you. Try candle-making, or perhaps making your own shampoo. Try learning to play the guitar with a few chords. Try knitting, or join a weekend cookery class. There are many things you can try. Not only will you make many friends and meet like-minded people, at the same time you will learn about learning – it is a skill that will benefit you for life!

Brighton fills up Stoke stadium

Could it be the magic of Brighton rubbing off on their northern neighbours? Stoke City’s next home match against Albion could be their biggest home match this season. Albion have already sold out of their 3200-ticket allocation, so the Potters had better beware of some good visiting support!

Albion currently sit three points above Stoke and new manager Paul Lambert in the table. A few weeks ago, a six point gap was all that separated the eleventh-placed team and the bottom, but with the developments of the recent weeks, that six-point gap is now limited to the fifteenth-placed team. What does that important stat mean? It puts more pressure for teams to win, because now not even six points are enough if you want to sleep easy. Those teams above the relegation zone can afford to plod on for draws, and hope to marginalise their goal difference, but those teams at the bottom really have to make a difference, an attempt to win, in Oder to lift themselves out. Perhaps when they have traded places with a team in fifteenth place or lower, they can afford to play for draws.

A gap of six points DOES separate the eleventh-placed and the nineteenth-placed team, though – meaning Stoke, on eighteenth, could in theory vault themselves to safety with two wins, while Albion may slide uncomfortably towards the relegation zone. It is not a situation Brighton would want!

How will Chris Hughton set up the Brighton team? It is likely they will set up with a defensive line up knowing that the Potters will want to attack, and then try to burn them out of energy over the course of the game – and then hope to win it in the final stages. And as for Stoke, they will probably line up against Brighton in an attacking formation. Maybe Peter Crouch will start? Watch for the Brighton midfield to try to nullify Xherdan Shaqiri, as many of Stoke’s opponents have done – they realise he drives most of the Stoke offensive.

Brighton and Stoke promises to bring in more changes and twists to the relegation tale. Watch the match this weekend; it’s not one to miss! Can Brighton pull away further to safety?

The benefits of homemade shampoos

Brighton bristles with crafts and hand made items. You can find things such as beeswax candles and homemade soaps that are good for your skin. If you are feeling crafty, why not consider making your own shampoos?

There are hundreds of shampoos on the market and each one of them promises to leave your hair shinier, softer and more beautiful than the rest. Realistically though, these shampoos rarely live up to their lofty promises, and in fact, for a number of reasons that we’ll go into, by far the best option is to simply make your own natural shampoos at home. While the vast majority of us grow up believing that using store-bought shampoos is the only option, it’s never too late to understand that there is actually a better alternative. After thoroughly investigating store-bought shampoos, I highly recommend you give making your own toxin-free, natural homemade shampoos a try, as these products are far better for your hair, your health, and the environment.

You’re probably wondering why you should spend the extra time and energy to make your own shampoos when you can easily grab a bottle off the shelf in your local supermarket? Well, here’s a rundown of facts that will help you understand why homemade shampoos are most definitely better than the store-bought variety!

1. Natural homemade shampoos take fantastic care of your hair.

Contrary to popular belief, it isn’t necessary to wash our hair with chemical shampoo every day. The reason for this is that over-shampooing strips the hair of it’s natural oils, and due to their harshness, this is particularly true of store-bought shampoos. However, when you begin using homemade shampoos you’ll notice that your hair will look healthier and that the right amount of protective natural oils will remain intact.

2. You can make natural homemade shampoos in small amounts and keep them in non-polluting, reusable containers until you need them.

Most shampoos can be stored in the fridge for at least a few days, and up to a couple of weeks, saving you from having to regularly make new batches. Although a regular shampoo container can be used to store your homemade shampoos, the best way of storing them is in glass containers. The reason for this is that glass is inert meaning no chemicals can leach out into your shampoos. As these containers are reusable and made of non-toxic material you’ll also have the peace of mind that you’re not just doing what’s right for your hair, but also what’s right for the environment!

3. Store-bought shampoos are often full of potentially cancer-causing chemicals.

As we are all well aware, cancer is a truly awful disease! Therefore it’s important that we do whatever we can in order to reduce the risk of ever suffering from this terrible condition. Cocamide DEA, a chemical found in nearly a hundred types of store-bought shampoos in the USA, has a proven link to the formation of cancerous cells in humans. Most shampoos also contain vast amounts of sulfates and parabens that may poison the scalp and the kidneys, and could also play a part in the onset of allergies. When you’re using store-bought shampoos, you’re exposing yourself to a vast array of chemical nasties, and in so doing you’re putting yourself at risk of potentially damaging your body’s tissues and organs.

Other chemicals to beware of include:
•Formaldehyde. Yes, that’s the same formaldehyde used for embalming the dead! While it may be OK for the dead, it’s certainly not something we want to be introducing into our bodies while we’re still alive! Formaldehyde can play a part in cancer formation and can reportedly cause our body’s organs to stiffen. This in turn may contribute to the onset of organ damage.

•Sodium Lauryl Sulphate. This chemical slowly damages the hair by breaking down it’s natural protein structure. An additional downside is that it can in some cases lead to lung or eye irritation.

•Polyoxyethylene, Sodium Chloride, and other Thickening Agents. These chemical agents are used to help shampoo lather easily. However, they can actually cause your scalp to become dry and itchy as they remove the natural oils which work to keep the hair and scalp healthy.

•Synthetic Colors. These chemicals can cause irritation of the scalp and skin.

•Siloxane, Dimethicone, Silicone and other Hair Sealants. These ingredients are reported to make the hair shiny, but due to their harsh chemical nature they can actually prevent the scalp from being able to coat hair with it’s natural oils. This in turn can lead to dry, frizzy and hard-to-manage hair.

•Mineral Oil, Petroleum, and Lanolin. While these products claim to moisturize your hair, they actually have no proven benefits. Like most chemicals in commercially available shampoos, they can strip away the natural oils and moisture from the hair and in extreme cases may even cause the hair to thin or, at worst, fall out!

•Propylene Glycol or Anti-Freeze Agents. You may be wondering “Why on earth would there be anti-freeze in my shampoo!?” Well, quite simply it’s used in order to stop the shampoo from freezing while in transport. This is the same anti-freeze that you might use in your car and, needless to say, it`s NOT something that you want to be rubbing into your scalp! Anti-freezing agents may cause allergic reactions as well as skin irritation.

•Alcohol. The relatively high amounts of alcohol found in some of the shampoos available on store shelves may dry the hair and make it heavy and brittle. As you can see, there are a wide range of potentially harmful ingredients in some store-bought shampoos. If we really care about the health of our hair and our bodies, perhaps we should think twice about using them and give alternative options a chance.

4. Natural homemade shampoos are packed full of natural goodness.
A lot of people are going organic these days when it comes to their diets. While it’s important to be concerned about what we eat and drink, it’s also important to think about what we are applying to other parts of our bodies. When we use natural products on our hair, we don’t only look good, we can also be sure that we’ll feel good, too.

Some of the wonderful ingredients that we can use in our natural homemade shampoos include:

•Apricot. A natural nourishing agent that’s not only good for soothing the skin, it’s actually great for the hair too.

•Avocado. Avocado contains lots of great natural fats and proteins that can play a big part in helping to keep our hair looking healthy and lustrous.

•Chamomile. Chamomile is not only soothing, it also smells great and revitalizes the hair!

•Honey. Honey acts as a natural hair softener and gives the hair a beautiful shine.

•Coconut Milk. Coconut milk has been used by people for centuries to help keep their hair looking and feeling soft and smooth.

•Fenugreek. A very powerful Indian herb which has anti-fungal and revitalizing properties. This ingredient could be a little difficult to find, but if you decide to take the time to source it you can be sure that it will definitely be worth the effort!

•Rosemary. Because of it’s great smell and its calming properties, rosemary can help to relax us. For this reason it’s used in numerous recipes within this book. Luckily, it’s super easy to find in almost any supermarket and it combines well with almost any of the other ingredients.

•Peppermint. Peppermint can leave your hair and scalp feeling fresh and cool. It’s also said that peppermint can play a part in helping hair grow faster.

•Mint. Has similar revitalizing and cooling effects to peppermint.

•Strawberry. Strawberries contain natural compounds that are extremely nourishing for both the hair and scalp, so adding a few strawberries to your homemade shampoo a sure way to create a shampoo which will leave your hair lustrous and healthy!

•Tea Tree Oil. This amazing, natural antibiotic is a marvel of nature! It leaves the hair with a silky shine and can even act as a natural insect repellent, driving away bugs such as mosquitoes! A truly brilliant ingredient for your homemade shampoos and for your bathroom cabinet if you ever have cuts or blemishes!

•Arrowroot. The hair needs protein to grow and Arrowroot will help provide this protein via the scalp. Also said to strengthen the hair.

•Shikakai. This Indian ingredient is sure to bring your crowning glory back to life due to it’s invigorating qualities.

Making your own shampoo is a good skill to learn when you are younger. Take a look inside one of the craft shops in Brighton, or sign up for a course and you will find that it will be more than worth it!

The history of breweries in Brighton

The rise of commercial breweries in Brighton escalated in the 17th and 18th centuries. Brighton’s earliest brewers also included William Chapman, Robert Hillick and James Buckle, Elizabeth Lucas, and Richard Whichols [sic]. By the late 19th century, as well as boasting hundreds of pubs and beer houses, Brighton had more than 10 sizeable breweries. These, and other large, national breweries, had already begun buying up large numbers of pubs which then became ‘tied houses’ — i.e. the pubs could only sell the brewer’s own beer. This contentious practice of ‘tied houses’ continues today.

Albion Brewery, Albion St: acquired by the Phoenix Brewery in 1892, it was used only as a store from 1924 and then as a builder’s yard until demolished in the 1970s. The site is now occupied by the Elim Church. The adjacent Stable public house is named from the brewery’s stable that stood opposite.

Amber Ale/Longhurst Brewery, Preston Circus: established by Henry Longhurst. Brighton Corporation paid £25,000 in 1901 to acquire its Preston Circus site for its tramways. Brighton Fire Station HQ (1901) and the Duke of York’s cinema (1910) were subsequently built there. The brewery premises boasted a very large clock tower and a domed roof. The malting was incorporated into the Duke of York’s and may still be seen behind the present fire station.

Anchor Brewery, 57 Waterloo St: started in the 1830s by Ebenezer Robins. Anchor beers included the ‘Bottled Half and Half’ — a mixture of ale and porter [sic], a family table ale, East Indian pale ale and Brighton stout. Tamplin’s bought the Anchor Brewery in 1928.

Bristol Steam Brewery (later the Kemp Town Brewery): started by in the 1839 by coal merchant William Hallett, it was bought by the Abbey family in 1889. Its beers included the bottled Brighton Lager Ale, which was claimed to be good for the digestion. The brewery’s fermenting vessels were made of rare New Zealand kauri pine, which may have given the beer its unique flavour.

Black Lion Brewery, Black Lion St: Brighton’s oldest brewery, the Black Lion was established in 1545 by Flemish Protestant Deryck (originally Dirick) Carver. The original brewery building was three old tenements with dormer windows and roof made of Horsham stone. Carver was martyred for his faith at Lewes in July 1555 — burned at the stake in a beer barrel. The Black Lion name lasted considerably longer than its founder. One of its many owners was William Chapman, ‘brewer to his majesty’ and a leading member of the Brighton Hunt Committee. He died in 1823 but the brewery continued as Chapmans, under the management of Benjamin Davis, with pubs including the Hand In Hand and Noah’s Ark. Brewing ceased in 1901, when the buildings were sold to the Rock Brewery, who used them for stores. Fremlin Brothers bought the premises in 1914 and used them as a bottling store until 1968, when the buildings were sold at auction and mostly demolished.

Cannon Brewery, Russell St: established by John Barnett in 1821. He and wife Eliza had been brewing their own beer for some time, which John would peddle around town at 3d a pint. The brewery eventually built up into a chain of some 50 pubs, including The City of London, The Liverpool Arms, The Cranbourne Arms and the Montpelier Arms. When John died in 1871, Eliza sold the business and its pubs to the brewing brothers, John and Frederick Kidd. The brewery buildings survived until May 1969, when they were demolished as part of the Churchill Square development.

Kemp Town Brewery, Seymour St: founded by William Hallett as the Bristol Brewery in about the 1840s, it was later taken over by the Abbey family and became the Kemp Town Brewery in 1933. Abbey’s was a business blighted by several catastrophes: in March 1900, labourer John Hope choked to death on carbonic acid gas after — despite repeated warnings — climbing into a fermenting vessel to retrieve some equipment that had dropped in there. Then, in 1907, Abbey’s Eastern Road malting house was gutted by a fire which started when the kiln overheated. It destroyed six months’ worth of malt. Henry Abbey was once Mayor of Brighton and an alderman. His son, William, took over as chairman of the brewery, as did his eldest son, John in 1943, when it had become the Kemp Town brewery. He was also appointed High Sheriff of Sussex in 1945. After serving during World War I, John turned his attentions to collecting antiquarian books, especially those produced by private printing presses, eventually becoming England’s most extensive rare book collector. The company was taken over by Charringtons in 1954 and the final beer was brewed and bottled in April 1964. The site was bought by Brighton College in 1967 and turned into its Maltings block. The rest of the buildings were sold in 1970 for the Seymour Square development.

Raven Brewery, 35 Vine St: set up in 1979 by pub owner, Vincent O’Rourke; the company was producing 150 barrels a day at its peak, with most of the beer sold at the Coachmakers Arms in Trafalgar St, which Raven owned. The company fizzled out during the 1980s.

Rock Brewery — originally known as Griffiths — 61 St James St: started in 1809, with malthouses in Hereford Street and Warwick Street. George Griffith, son of the original owner, was a much-loved benefactor of Brighton, whose philanthropic pomps and works included the redecoration of the Banqueting Room in Royal Pavilion. In February 1849, Griffith was found dead in the road, shot through the heart at point-blank range, about four miles from Henfield on his way back from collecting cash from Horsham. The murder weapon turned out to be one of two pistols Griffith carried with him. Robbery was believed to be the motive for the unsolved killing. In 1900, the Rock Brewery bought the College Brewery in Montague Place and, a year later, the Black Lion Brewery. The Portsmouth and Brighton United Breweries bought a large share of the business in 1927. By 1953, the Rock Brewery had produced its last beer and the company was wound up in 1960. The main building was demolished in 1978, and the site is now occupied by Lavender House and St Mary’s Church House.

Smithers/North St Brewery: founded in 1851 by Henry Smithers. His son, Edward Smithers, served as chairman of the Brighton Brewers’ Society. Smithers eventually acquired the West St Brewery, Portslade Brewery, Bedford and North St breweries. Its Western Road premises were demolished in 1923 to make way for the Imperial Arcade, but the brewery continued trading from premises in Regent Hill until it was acquired by Tamplins in 1929.

Tamplins/Phoenix Brewery: at its peak, Tamplins owned 200 Brighton pubs and was producing nearly 5 million gallons of beer a year. Between 1892 and 1929, it bought the Albion, Cannon, Brighton, Anchor (Robins), Smithers and West St breweries. Tamplins itself was bought by Watney Mann in 1953 and closed in 1973.

The brewery was founded by Richard Tamplin in 1820 but, after a fire destroyed its original site at Southwick, he opened the Phoenix Brewery in 1821 between Albion St and Southover St. His son Henry took over on his father’s death in 1849, who was succeeded by his son William in 1867. By the late 1880s, Tamplins had over 80 pubs. This number almost doubled when Charles Catt, a partner in Vallance & Catt, owner of the Ship St Brewery since 1850, sold his 74 pubs to Tamplins in 1899 and joined their board (the brewing side of Vallance and Catt was taken over by Henry and Percy In Willett and run as the West St Brewery until this in turn was taken over by Smithers in 1919). The company continued to prosper throughout the early part of the 20th century: beer sales rose from £361,013 in 1925 to £397,572 in 1927, and bottled beer sales, from 83,065 in 1925 to 120,324 in 1927. But, 1932, its fortunes had taken a slight, but discernible, downswing. Costs were increasing: the maintenance of horses, carriages and motors plus the company had to spend more on advertising. A number of Tamplins pubs, including the Flying Scud, The Bath Arms and The Fisherman At Home were also consistently making a loss. After swallowing up most of its brewing competitors, Tamplins itself was bought by Watney Mann in 1953. By the time of its closure some 20 years later, when the last brew was made, it employed 450 people by time of closure that year. The brewery was demolished in 1980 but the Phoenix name lives on: in July 1996, the derelict brewery site was developed for 95 new homes for 300 people, comprising houses for families, wheelchair accessible housing and flats for single people. The £7.8 million development, led by Chichester Diocesan Housing Association, received funding from the Housing Corporation and the council and was completed in December 1997.

West St Brewery: Grover’s West St Brewery, established in 1767 by Isaac Grover, was the first in Brighton to use steam power. Taken over by Vallance and Son in 1895, it became Vallance & Catt brewery. Standing behind the King’s Head near the south-western corner of West Street, it was taken over by Smithers in 1913, but was closed by Tamplins in 1929 and demolished in 1933.

Dark Star Brewery: named after a Grateful Dead song, began as a micro-brewery in the cellar of the Evening Star in Surrey St in 1994. Its current beers include Over The Moon, Spiced Vice (made with coriander), Espresso Stout, Meltdown (made with Chinese stem ginger) and Natural Blonde, made with organic malt. Its other exotic brews have included Delhi Beli, garlic-flavoured beer and tandoori beer — surely one of the most blatant attempts ever made by a brewer to curry favour with its customers.

Kemp Town Brewery, Hand in Hand, 33 Upper St James St: believed to be England’s smallest brewery, started by Bev and Brenda Robbins in December 1988 and produced its first brew in November 1989. The idea came — as many of the best ideas do — from a beery evening enjoyed at (where else?) The Great British Beer Festival in Leeds. Kemp Town’s three regular beers are Kemptown Bitter, Ye Olde Trout and Dragons Blood, but other brews have included Crewsaver, Celebrated Staggering Ale and Staggering in the Dark. When the Tour de France came to Brighton, Kemp Town commemorated it with a special beer, On Yer Bike. Their winter beer, Old Grumpy ABV is available from December.